10. Performance Tuning

This chapter contains a checklist and some guidelines to take into consideration when getting ready for production-level performance. By now, you have probably used the test fixtures to test your command handling logic and sagas. The production environment isn't as forgiving as a test environment, though. Aggregates tend to live longer, be used more frequently and concurrently. For the extra performance and stability, you're better off tweaking the configuration to suit your specific needs.

10.1. Database Indexes

If you have generated the tables automatically using your JPA implementation (e.g. Hibernate), you probably do not have all the right indexes set on your tables. Different usages of the Event Store require different indexes to be set for optimal performance. This list explains which fields are used for the different types of queries by the default EventEntryStore implementation:

  • Normal operational use (storing and loading events):

    Table 'DomainEventEntry', columns type, aggregateIdentifier and sequenceNumber (unique index)

  • Snapshotting:

    Table 'SnapshotEventEntry', columns type, aggregateIdentifier and sequenceNumber (optionally a unique index)

  • Replaying the Event Store contents

    Table 'DomainEventEntry', column timestamp (optionally also sequenceNumber)

  • Sagas

    Table 'AssociationValueEntry', columns associationKey and sagaId,

    Table 'SagaEntry', column sagaId (unique index)

10.2. Caching

A well designed command handling module should pose no problems when implementing caching. Especially when using Event Sourcing, loading an aggregate from an Event Store is an expensive operation. With a properly configured cache in place, loading an aggregate can be converted into a pure in-memory process.

Here are a few guidelines that help you get the most out of your caching solution:

  • Make sure the Unit Of Work never needs to perform a rollback for functional reasons.

    A rollback means that an aggregate has reached an invalid state, and will invalidate the cache. The next requrest will force the aggregate to be reconstructed from its Events. If you use exceptions as a potential (functional) return value, you can configure a RollbackConfiguration on your Command Bus. By default, the Unit Of Work will be rolled back on every exception.

  • All commands for a single aggregate must arrive on the machine that has the aggregate in its cache.

    This means that commands should be consistently routed to the same machine, for as long as that machine is "healthy". Routing commands consistently prevents the cache from going stale. A hit on a stale cache will cause a command to be executed and fail at the moment events are stored in the event store.

  • Configure a sensible time to live / time to idle

    By default, caches have a tendency to have a relatively short time to live, a matter of minutes. For a command handling component with consistent routing, an eternal time-to-idle and time-to-live is the better default. This prevents the need to re-initialize an aggregate based on its events, just because its cache entry expired. The time-to-live of your cache should match the expected lifetime of your aggregate.

10.3. Snapshotting

Snapshotting removes the need to reload and replay large numbers of events. A single snapshot represents the entire aggregate state at a certain moment in time. The process of snapshotting itself, however, also takes processing time. Therefor, there should be a balance in the time spent building snapshots and the time it saves by preventing a number of events being read back in.

There is no default behavior for all types of applications. Some will specify a number of events after which a snapshot will be created, while other applications require a time-based snapshotting interval. Whatever way you choose for your application, make sure snapshotting is in place if you have long-living aggregates.

See Section 5.4, “Snapshotting” for more about snapshotting.

10.4. Aggregate performance

The actual structure of your aggregates has a large impact of the performance of command handling. Since Axon manages the concurrency around your aggregate instances, you don't need to use special locks or concurrent collections inside the aggregates.

Override getChildEntities

By default, the getChildEntities method in AbstractEventSourcedAggregateRoot and AbstractEventSourcedEntity uses reflection to inspect all the fields of each entity to find related entities. Especially when an aggregate contains large collections, this inspection could take more time than desired.

To gain a performance benefit, you can override the getChildEntities method and return the collection of child entities yourself. If an entity is a leaf node (i.e. has no child entities), you may either return an empty collection or null.

10.5. Event Serializer tuning

XStream is very configurable and extensible. If you just use a plain XStreamEventSerializer, there are some quick wins ready to pick up. XStream allows you to configure aliases for package names and event class names. Aliases are typically much shorter (especially if you have long package names), making the serialized form of an event smaller. An since we're talking XML, character removed from XML is twice the profit (one for the start tag, and one for the end tag).

A more advanced topic in XStream is creating custom converters. The default reflection based converters are simple, but do not generate the most compact XML. Always look carefully at the generated XML and see if all the information there is really needed to reconstruct the original instance.

Avoid the use of upcasters when possible. XStream allows aliases to be used for fields, when they have changed name. Imagine revision 0 of an event, that used a field called "clientId". The business prefers the term "customer", so revision 1 was created with a field called "customerId". This can be configured completely in XStream, using field aliases. You need to configure two aliases, in the following order: alias "customerId" to "clientId" and then alias "customerId" to "customerId". This will tell XStream that if it encounters a field called "customerId", it will call the corresponding XML element "customerId" (the second alias overrides the first). But if XStream encounters an XML element called "clientId", it is a known alias and will be resolved to field name "customerId". Check out the XStream documentation for more information.

For ultimate performance, you're probably better off without reflection based mechanisms alltogether. In that case, it is probably wisest to create a customer serialization mechanism. The DataInputStream and DataOutputStream allow you to easilly write the contents of the Events to an output stream. The ByteArrayOutputStream and ByteArrayInputStream allow writing to and reading from byte arrays. The DomainEvent class provides a constructor that you can use to do a full reconstruction based on existing data: DomainEvent(String eventIdentifier, DateTime creationTimeStamp, long eventRevision, long sequenceNumber, AggregateIdentifier aggregateIdentifier).

10.6. Custom Identifier generation

The Axon Framework uses an IdentifierFactory to generate all the identifiers, whether they are for Events or Aggregates. The default IdentifierFactory uses randomly generated java.util.UUID based identifiers. Although they are very safe to use, the process to generate them doesn't excell in performance.

IdentifierFactory is an abstract factory that uses Java's ServiceLoader (since Java 6) mechanism to find the implementation to use. This means you can create your own implementation of the factory and put the name of the implementation in a file called "/META-INF/services/org.axonframework.domain.IdentifierFactory". Java's ServiceLoader mechanism will detect that file and attempt to create an instance of the class named inside.

There are a few requirements for the IdentifierFactory. The implementation must

  • have its fully qualified class name as the contents of the /META-INF/services/org.axonframework.domain.IdentifierFactory file on the classpath,

  • have an accessible zero-argument constructor,

  • extend IdentifierFactory,

  • be accessible by the context classloader of the application or by the classloader that loaded the IdentifierFactory class, and must

  • be thread-safe.